Source code for sklearn.decomposition.kernel_pca

"""Kernel Principal Components Analysis"""

# Author: Mathieu Blondel <>
# License: BSD 3 clause

import numpy as np
from scipy import linalg
from scipy.sparse.linalg import eigsh

from ..utils import check_random_state
from ..utils.validation import check_is_fitted, check_array
from ..exceptions import NotFittedError
from ..base import BaseEstimator, TransformerMixin
from ..preprocessing import KernelCenterer
from ..metrics.pairwise import pairwise_kernels

class KernelPCA(BaseEstimator, TransformerMixin):
    """Kernel Principal component analysis (KPCA)

    Non-linear dimensionality reduction through the use of kernels (see

    Read more in the :ref:`User Guide <kernel_PCA>`.

    n_components : int, default=None
        Number of components. If None, all non-zero components are kept.

    kernel : "linear" | "poly" | "rbf" | "sigmoid" | "cosine" | "precomputed"
        Kernel. Default="linear".

    gamma : float, default=1/n_features
        Kernel coefficient for rbf, poly and sigmoid kernels. Ignored by other

    degree : int, default=3
        Degree for poly kernels. Ignored by other kernels.

    coef0 : float, default=1
        Independent term in poly and sigmoid kernels.
        Ignored by other kernels.

    kernel_params : mapping of string to any, default=None
        Parameters (keyword arguments) and values for kernel passed as
        callable object. Ignored by other kernels.

    alpha : int, default=1.0
        Hyperparameter of the ridge regression that learns the
        inverse transform (when fit_inverse_transform=True).

    fit_inverse_transform : bool, default=False
        Learn the inverse transform for non-precomputed kernels.
        (i.e. learn to find the pre-image of a point)

    eigen_solver : string ['auto'|'dense'|'arpack'], default='auto'
        Select eigensolver to use. If n_components is much less than
        the number of training samples, arpack may be more efficient
        than the dense eigensolver.

    tol : float, default=0
        Convergence tolerance for arpack.
        If 0, optimal value will be chosen by arpack.

    max_iter : int, default=None
        Maximum number of iterations for arpack.
        If None, optimal value will be chosen by arpack.

    remove_zero_eig : boolean, default=False
        If True, then all components with zero eigenvalues are removed, so
        that the number of components in the output may be < n_components
        (and sometimes even zero due to numerical instability).
        When n_components is None, this parameter is ignored and components
        with zero eigenvalues are removed regardless.

    random_state : int, RandomState instance or None, optional (default=None)
        If int, random_state is the seed used by the random number generator;
        If RandomState instance, random_state is the random number generator;
        If None, the random number generator is the RandomState instance used
        by `np.random`. Used when ``eigen_solver`` == 'arpack'.

        .. versionadded:: 0.18

    copy_X : boolean, default=True
        If True, input X is copied and stored by the model in the `X_fit_`
        attribute. If no further changes will be done to X, setting
        `copy_X=False` saves memory by storing a reference.

        .. versionadded:: 0.18

    n_jobs : int, default=1
        The number of parallel jobs to run.
        If `-1`, then the number of jobs is set to the number of CPU cores.

        .. versionadded:: 0.18

    lambdas_ : array, (n_components,)
        Eigenvalues of the centered kernel matrix in decreasing order.
        If `n_components` and `remove_zero_eig` are not set,
        then all values are stored.

    alphas_ : array, (n_samples, n_components)
        Eigenvectors of the centered kernel matrix. If `n_components` and
        `remove_zero_eig` are not set, then all components are stored.

    dual_coef_ : array, (n_samples, n_features)
        Inverse transform matrix. Set if `fit_inverse_transform` is True.

    X_transformed_fit_ : array, (n_samples, n_components)
        Projection of the fitted data on the kernel principal components.

    X_fit_ : (n_samples, n_features)
        The data used to fit the model. If `copy_X=False`, then `X_fit_` is
        a reference. This attribute is used for the calls to transform.

    Kernel PCA was introduced in:
        Bernhard Schoelkopf, Alexander J. Smola,
        and Klaus-Robert Mueller. 1999. Kernel principal
        component analysis. In Advances in kernel methods,
        MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA 327-352.

    def __init__(self, n_components=None, kernel="linear",
                 gamma=None, degree=3, coef0=1, kernel_params=None,
                 alpha=1.0, fit_inverse_transform=False, eigen_solver='auto',
                 tol=0, max_iter=None, remove_zero_eig=False,
                 random_state=None, copy_X=True, n_jobs=1):
        if fit_inverse_transform and kernel == 'precomputed':
            raise ValueError(
                "Cannot fit_inverse_transform with a precomputed kernel.")
        self.n_components = n_components
        self.kernel = kernel
        self.kernel_params = kernel_params
        self.gamma = gamma = degree
        self.coef0 = coef0
        self.alpha = alpha
        self.fit_inverse_transform = fit_inverse_transform
        self.eigen_solver = eigen_solver
        self.remove_zero_eig = remove_zero_eig
        self.tol = tol
        self.max_iter = max_iter
        self._centerer = KernelCenterer()
        self.random_state = random_state
        self.n_jobs = n_jobs
        self.copy_X = copy_X

    def _pairwise(self):
        return self.kernel == "precomputed"

    def _get_kernel(self, X, Y=None):
        if callable(self.kernel):
            params = self.kernel_params or {}
            params = {"gamma": self.gamma,
                      "coef0": self.coef0}
        return pairwise_kernels(X, Y, metric=self.kernel,
                                filter_params=True, n_jobs=self.n_jobs,

    def _fit_transform(self, K):
        """ Fit's using kernel K"""
        # center kernel
        K = self._centerer.fit_transform(K)

        if self.n_components is None:
            n_components = K.shape[0]
            n_components = min(K.shape[0], self.n_components)

        # compute eigenvectors
        if self.eigen_solver == 'auto':
            if K.shape[0] > 200 and n_components < 10:
                eigen_solver = 'arpack'
                eigen_solver = 'dense'
            eigen_solver = self.eigen_solver

        if eigen_solver == 'dense':
            self.lambdas_, self.alphas_ = linalg.eigh(
                K, eigvals=(K.shape[0] - n_components, K.shape[0] - 1))
        elif eigen_solver == 'arpack':
            random_state = check_random_state(self.random_state)
            # initialize with [-1,1] as in ARPACK
            v0 = random_state.uniform(-1, 1, K.shape[0])
            self.lambdas_, self.alphas_ = eigsh(K, n_components,

        # sort eigenvectors in descending order
        indices = self.lambdas_.argsort()[::-1]
        self.lambdas_ = self.lambdas_[indices]
        self.alphas_ = self.alphas_[:, indices]

        # remove eigenvectors with a zero eigenvalue
        if self.remove_zero_eig or self.n_components is None:
            self.alphas_ = self.alphas_[:, self.lambdas_ > 0]
            self.lambdas_ = self.lambdas_[self.lambdas_ > 0]

        return K

    def _fit_inverse_transform(self, X_transformed, X):
        if hasattr(X, "tocsr"):
            raise NotImplementedError("Inverse transform not implemented for "
                                      "sparse matrices!")

        n_samples = X_transformed.shape[0]
        K = self._get_kernel(X_transformed)
        K.flat[::n_samples + 1] += self.alpha
        self.dual_coef_ = linalg.solve(K, X, sym_pos=True, overwrite_a=True)
        self.X_transformed_fit_ = X_transformed

[docs] def fit(self, X, y=None): """Fit the model from data in X. Parameters ---------- X : array-like, shape (n_samples, n_features) Training vector, where n_samples in the number of samples and n_features is the number of features. Returns ------- self : object Returns the instance itself. """ X = check_array(X, accept_sparse='csr', copy=self.copy_X) K = self._get_kernel(X) self._fit_transform(K) if self.fit_inverse_transform: sqrt_lambdas = np.diag(np.sqrt(self.lambdas_)) X_transformed =, sqrt_lambdas) self._fit_inverse_transform(X_transformed, X) self.X_fit_ = X return self
[docs] def fit_transform(self, X, y=None, **params): """Fit the model from data in X and transform X. Parameters ---------- X : array-like, shape (n_samples, n_features) Training vector, where n_samples in the number of samples and n_features is the number of features. Returns ------- X_new : array-like, shape (n_samples, n_components) """, **params) X_transformed = self.alphas_ * np.sqrt(self.lambdas_) if self.fit_inverse_transform: self._fit_inverse_transform(X_transformed, X) return X_transformed
[docs] def transform(self, X): """Transform X. Parameters ---------- X : array-like, shape (n_samples, n_features) Returns ------- X_new : array-like, shape (n_samples, n_components) """ check_is_fitted(self, 'X_fit_') K = self._centerer.transform(self._get_kernel(X, self.X_fit_)) return, self.alphas_ / np.sqrt(self.lambdas_))
[docs] def inverse_transform(self, X): """Transform X back to original space. Parameters ---------- X : array-like, shape (n_samples, n_components) Returns ------- X_new : array-like, shape (n_samples, n_features) References ---------- "Learning to Find Pre-Images", G BakIr et al, 2004. """ if not self.fit_inverse_transform: raise NotFittedError("The fit_inverse_transform parameter was not" " set to True when instantiating and hence " "the inverse transform is not available.") K = self._get_kernel(X, self.X_transformed_fit_) return, self.dual_coef_)