# Source code for sklearn.cluster.dbscan_

```
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
DBSCAN: Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise
"""
# Author: Robert Layton <robertlayton@gmail.com>
# Joel Nothman <joel.nothman@gmail.com>
# Lars Buitinck
#
# License: BSD 3 clause
import numpy as np
from scipy import sparse
from ..base import BaseEstimator, ClusterMixin
from ..utils import check_array, check_consistent_length
from ..neighbors import NearestNeighbors
from ._dbscan_inner import dbscan_inner
def dbscan(X, eps=0.5, min_samples=5, metric='minkowski', metric_params=None,
algorithm='auto', leaf_size=30, p=2, sample_weight=None, n_jobs=1):
"""Perform DBSCAN clustering from vector array or distance matrix.
Read more in the :ref:`User Guide <dbscan>`.
Parameters
----------
X : array or sparse (CSR) matrix of shape (n_samples, n_features), or \
array of shape (n_samples, n_samples)
A feature array, or array of distances between samples if
``metric='precomputed'``.
eps : float, optional
The maximum distance between two samples for them to be considered
as in the same neighborhood.
min_samples : int, optional
The number of samples (or total weight) in a neighborhood for a point
to be considered as a core point. This includes the point itself.
metric : string, or callable
The metric to use when calculating distance between instances in a
feature array. If metric is a string or callable, it must be one of
the options allowed by metrics.pairwise.pairwise_distances for its
metric parameter.
If metric is "precomputed", X is assumed to be a distance matrix and
must be square. X may be a sparse matrix, in which case only "nonzero"
elements may be considered neighbors for DBSCAN.
metric_params : dict, optional
Additional keyword arguments for the metric function.
.. versionadded:: 0.19
algorithm : {'auto', 'ball_tree', 'kd_tree', 'brute'}, optional
The algorithm to be used by the NearestNeighbors module
to compute pointwise distances and find nearest neighbors.
See NearestNeighbors module documentation for details.
leaf_size : int, optional (default = 30)
Leaf size passed to BallTree or cKDTree. This can affect the speed
of the construction and query, as well as the memory required
to store the tree. The optimal value depends
on the nature of the problem.
p : float, optional
The power of the Minkowski metric to be used to calculate distance
between points.
sample_weight : array, shape (n_samples,), optional
Weight of each sample, such that a sample with a weight of at least
``min_samples`` is by itself a core sample; a sample with negative
weight may inhibit its eps-neighbor from being core.
Note that weights are absolute, and default to 1.
n_jobs : int, optional (default = 1)
The number of parallel jobs to run for neighbors search.
If ``-1``, then the number of jobs is set to the number of CPU cores.
Returns
-------
core_samples : array [n_core_samples]
Indices of core samples.
labels : array [n_samples]
Cluster labels for each point. Noisy samples are given the label -1.
Notes
-----
For an example, see :ref:`examples/cluster/plot_dbscan.py
<sphx_glr_auto_examples_cluster_plot_dbscan.py>`.
This implementation bulk-computes all neighborhood queries, which increases
the memory complexity to O(n.d) where d is the average number of neighbors,
while original DBSCAN had memory complexity O(n).
Sparse neighborhoods can be precomputed using
:func:`NearestNeighbors.radius_neighbors_graph
<sklearn.neighbors.NearestNeighbors.radius_neighbors_graph>`
with ``mode='distance'``.
References
----------
Ester, M., H. P. Kriegel, J. Sander, and X. Xu, "A Density-Based
Algorithm for Discovering Clusters in Large Spatial Databases with Noise".
In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Knowledge Discovery
and Data Mining, Portland, OR, AAAI Press, pp. 226-231. 1996
"""
if not eps > 0.0:
raise ValueError("eps must be positive.")
X = check_array(X, accept_sparse='csr')
if sample_weight is not None:
sample_weight = np.asarray(sample_weight)
check_consistent_length(X, sample_weight)
# Calculate neighborhood for all samples. This leaves the original point
# in, which needs to be considered later (i.e. point i is in the
# neighborhood of point i. While True, its useless information)
if metric == 'precomputed' and sparse.issparse(X):
neighborhoods = np.empty(X.shape[0], dtype=object)
X.sum_duplicates() # XXX: modifies X's internals in-place
X_mask = X.data <= eps
masked_indices = X.indices.astype(np.intp, copy=False)[X_mask]
masked_indptr = np.concatenate(([0], np.cumsum(X_mask)))[X.indptr[1:]]
# insert the diagonal: a point is its own neighbor, but 0 distance
# means absence from sparse matrix data
masked_indices = np.insert(masked_indices, masked_indptr,
np.arange(X.shape[0]))
masked_indptr = masked_indptr[:-1] + np.arange(1, X.shape[0])
# split into rows
neighborhoods[:] = np.split(masked_indices, masked_indptr)
else:
neighbors_model = NearestNeighbors(radius=eps, algorithm=algorithm,
leaf_size=leaf_size,
metric=metric,
metric_params=metric_params, p=p,
n_jobs=n_jobs)
neighbors_model.fit(X)
# This has worst case O(n^2) memory complexity
neighborhoods = neighbors_model.radius_neighbors(X, eps,
return_distance=False)
if sample_weight is None:
n_neighbors = np.array([len(neighbors)
for neighbors in neighborhoods])
else:
n_neighbors = np.array([np.sum(sample_weight[neighbors])
for neighbors in neighborhoods])
# Initially, all samples are noise.
labels = -np.ones(X.shape[0], dtype=np.intp)
# A list of all core samples found.
core_samples = np.asarray(n_neighbors >= min_samples, dtype=np.uint8)
dbscan_inner(core_samples, neighborhoods, labels)
return np.where(core_samples)[0], labels
class DBSCAN(BaseEstimator, ClusterMixin):
"""Perform DBSCAN clustering from vector array or distance matrix.
DBSCAN - Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise.
Finds core samples of high density and expands clusters from them.
Good for data which contains clusters of similar density.
Read more in the :ref:`User Guide <dbscan>`.
Parameters
----------
eps : float, optional
The maximum distance between two samples for them to be considered
as in the same neighborhood.
min_samples : int, optional
The number of samples (or total weight) in a neighborhood for a point
to be considered as a core point. This includes the point itself.
metric : string, or callable
The metric to use when calculating distance between instances in a
feature array. If metric is a string or callable, it must be one of
the options allowed by metrics.pairwise.calculate_distance for its
metric parameter.
If metric is "precomputed", X is assumed to be a distance matrix and
must be square. X may be a sparse matrix, in which case only "nonzero"
elements may be considered neighbors for DBSCAN.
.. versionadded:: 0.17
metric *precomputed* to accept precomputed sparse matrix.
metric_params : dict, optional
Additional keyword arguments for the metric function.
.. versionadded:: 0.19
algorithm : {'auto', 'ball_tree', 'kd_tree', 'brute'}, optional
The algorithm to be used by the NearestNeighbors module
to compute pointwise distances and find nearest neighbors.
See NearestNeighbors module documentation for details.
leaf_size : int, optional (default = 30)
Leaf size passed to BallTree or cKDTree. This can affect the speed
of the construction and query, as well as the memory required
to store the tree. The optimal value depends
on the nature of the problem.
p : float, optional
The power of the Minkowski metric to be used to calculate distance
between points.
n_jobs : int, optional (default = 1)
The number of parallel jobs to run.
If ``-1``, then the number of jobs is set to the number of CPU cores.
Attributes
----------
core_sample_indices_ : array, shape = [n_core_samples]
Indices of core samples.
components_ : array, shape = [n_core_samples, n_features]
Copy of each core sample found by training.
labels_ : array, shape = [n_samples]
Cluster labels for each point in the dataset given to fit().
Noisy samples are given the label -1.
Notes
-----
For an example, see :ref:`examples/cluster/plot_dbscan.py
<sphx_glr_auto_examples_cluster_plot_dbscan.py>`.
This implementation bulk-computes all neighborhood queries, which increases
the memory complexity to O(n.d) where d is the average number of neighbors,
while original DBSCAN had memory complexity O(n).
Sparse neighborhoods can be precomputed using
:func:`NearestNeighbors.radius_neighbors_graph
<sklearn.neighbors.NearestNeighbors.radius_neighbors_graph>`
with ``mode='distance'``.
References
----------
Ester, M., H. P. Kriegel, J. Sander, and X. Xu, "A Density-Based
Algorithm for Discovering Clusters in Large Spatial Databases with Noise".
In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Knowledge Discovery
and Data Mining, Portland, OR, AAAI Press, pp. 226-231. 1996
"""
def __init__(self, eps=0.5, min_samples=5, metric='euclidean',
metric_params=None, algorithm='auto', leaf_size=30, p=None,
n_jobs=1):
self.eps = eps
self.min_samples = min_samples
self.metric = metric
self.metric_params = metric_params
self.algorithm = algorithm
self.leaf_size = leaf_size
self.p = p
self.n_jobs = n_jobs
[docs] def fit(self, X, y=None, sample_weight=None):
"""Perform DBSCAN clustering from features or distance matrix.
Parameters
----------
X : array or sparse (CSR) matrix of shape (n_samples, n_features), or \
array of shape (n_samples, n_samples)
A feature array, or array of distances between samples if
``metric='precomputed'``.
sample_weight : array, shape (n_samples,), optional
Weight of each sample, such that a sample with a weight of at least
``min_samples`` is by itself a core sample; a sample with negative
weight may inhibit its eps-neighbor from being core.
Note that weights are absolute, and default to 1.
y : Ignored
"""
X = check_array(X, accept_sparse='csr')
clust = dbscan(X, sample_weight=sample_weight,
**self.get_params())
self.core_sample_indices_, self.labels_ = clust
if len(self.core_sample_indices_):
# fix for scipy sparse indexing issue
self.components_ = X[self.core_sample_indices_].copy()
else:
# no core samples
self.components_ = np.empty((0, X.shape[1]))
return self
[docs] def fit_predict(self, X, y=None, sample_weight=None):
"""Performs clustering on X and returns cluster labels.
Parameters
----------
X : array or sparse (CSR) matrix of shape (n_samples, n_features), or \
array of shape (n_samples, n_samples)
A feature array, or array of distances between samples if
``metric='precomputed'``.
sample_weight : array, shape (n_samples,), optional
Weight of each sample, such that a sample with a weight of at least
``min_samples`` is by itself a core sample; a sample with negative
weight may inhibit its eps-neighbor from being core.
Note that weights are absolute, and default to 1.
y : Ignored
Returns
-------
y : ndarray, shape (n_samples,)
cluster labels
"""
self.fit(X, sample_weight=sample_weight)
return self.labels_
```